By Thomas L. Floyd
Analog basics: A structures Approach offers special insurance of analog units and circuits with a structures emphasis. Discrete linear units, operational amplifiers, and different linear built-in circuits, are all coated with much less emphasis at the person equipment, and extra dialogue on how those units are included into better circuits and systems.
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Extra info for Analog Fundamentals: A Systems Approach
In addition to considering the simpliﬁed model for source and load effects, the simpliﬁed model is also useful to analyze the internal loading when two or more stages are cascaded to form a single ampliﬁer. Consider two stages cascaded as shown in Figure 1–20. The overall gain is affected by loading effects from each of the three loops. The loops are simple series circuits, so voltages can easily be calculated with the voltage-divider rule. Amplifier Stage 1 Rs Vs Stage 2 Rth1 Vin Rin1 Vth1 = Av1Vin1 Loop 1 Rth2 Vin2 Rin2 Loop 2 Vth2 = Av2Vin2 RL Loop 3 FIGURE 1–20 Cascaded stages in an ampliﬁer.
0 ms. (Reminder: the angles are in radians in this equation). 6. Determine the frequency (in Hz) and the period (in s) for the sinusoidal wave described in Problem 5. 7. An oscilloscope shows a wave repeating every 27 ms. What is the frequency of the wave? 8. A DMM indicates the rms value of a sinusoidal wave. 5 V, what peak-to-peak voltage would you expect to observe on an oscilloscope? 9. The ratio of the rms voltage to the average voltage for any wave is called the form factor (used occasionally to convert meter readings).
They include two main categories: waveshaping and switching. A waveshaping ampliﬁer is used to change the shape of a waveform. A switching ampliﬁer produces a rectangular output from some other waveform. The input can be any waveform, for example, sinusoidal, triangle, or sawtooth. The rectangular output wave is often used as a control signal for some digital applications. EXAMPLE 1–6 The input and output signals for a linear ampliﬁer are shown in Figure 1–18 and represent an oscilloscope display.
Analog Fundamentals: A Systems Approach by Thomas L. Floyd