By Lisa Gitelman
Choice remarkable educational identify, 2007.
In Always Already New, Lisa Gitelman explores the novelty of recent media whereas she asks what it capacity to do media heritage. utilizing the examples of early recorded sound and electronic networks, Gitelman demanding situations readers to contemplate the ways in which media paintings because the simultaneous topics and tools of ancient inquiry. offering unique case stories of Edison's first phonographs and the Pentagon's first disbursed electronic community, the ARPANET, Gitelman issues suggestively towards similarities that underlie the cultural definition of files (phonographic and never) on the finish of the 19th century and the definition of records (digital and never) on the finish of the 20th. therefore, Always Already New speaks to provide matters in regards to the humanities up to to the emergent box of latest media reviews. files and files are kernels of humanistic suggestion, after all—part of and occasion to the cultural impulse to maintain and interpret. Gitelman's argument indicates artistic contexts for "humanities computing" whereas additionally supplying a brand new point of view on such conventional humanities disciplines as literary history.
Making vast use of archival resources, Gitelman describes the ways that recorded sound and digitally networked textual content each one emerged as neighborhood anomalies that have been but deeply embedded in the reigning common sense of public existence and public reminiscence. in spite of everything Gitelman turns to the realm huge internet and asks how the historical past of the net is already being instructed, how the internet may additionally face up to historical past, and the way utilizing the internet could be generating the stipulations of its personal historicity.
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Extra resources for Always Already New: Media, History, and the Data of Culture
The sociologist Bruno Latour (1990) has demonstrated just how powerful inscriptions (his “immutable mobiles”) are in the work of science. Scientists collect and circulate inscriptions, using some inscriptions—like electron micrographs, data sheets, lab notes, and cited articles—to produce others—such as grant applications and scientific papers for refereed journals. Other disciplines or types of inquiry work this way too. Classicists, for instance, work partly with inscribed archaeological 19 20 Introduction artifacts (stone tablets, coins, and so on) and inscribed archival ones (papyrus, vellum, and paper; manuscripts, print editions, concordances, and monographs).
By Reconstruction, keeping a “civil” tongue had nothing at all to do with the civil authorities—that is, with the notable exceptions of schoolchildren (particularly Native American and nonnative ones, whose “uncivilized” speech tended to be circumscribed) and President Andrew Johnson, who was impeached in 1868 partly because of allegedly “intemperate, inflammatory, and scandalous harangues” as well as “loud threats and bitter menaces” uttered in public against Congress. S. newspapers as their evidence of declining standards in usage, but they also pointed to them as the single most important cause of decline.
Publishers pirated fervidly, particularly from the British press. 10 Part of the most basic connection between print and fact—that transparent Enlightenment logic that operates (what Michel Foucault identified as) the “author function,” and that lionizes textual authenticity and legitimates textual evidence11 —eroded in practice: readers know today how frustrating it is to pick up an edition, even an authorized “complete works” from the period, or a newspaper column, not to say a copy of a British novel published piratically in the United States, and receive little or no indication of the provenance of the work it presents.
Always Already New: Media, History, and the Data of Culture by Lisa Gitelman