By J.O. Reuss, D.W. Johnson
The majority of this publication used to be written in 1983-84 whereas the senior writer used to be a traveling Scientist at Oak Ridge nationwide Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. We think that the method of the matter of acid deposition results on soils and waters built in this collaboration includes ele ments which are considerably diverse from such a lot past paintings during this quarter. the various fabric and the software program utilized in the improvement of those ideas stem from previous person efforts of the authors. even though, what we think to be the extra major techniques about the approaches wherein alkalinity might be constructed in acid soil suggestions, and wherein acid deposition might contrib ute to the lack of this alkalinity, have been the results of this collaboration. the final word usefulness of those options in knowing and working with a variety of features of the issues linked to acid deposition can't be appropriately gauged this day. they need to first face up to assessments of con sistency with to be had statement, and of direct experimentation. it truly is our desire that dissemination via this publication will facilitate this technique in the medical neighborhood. The authors desire to thank the management of the Environmental technological know-how department at ORNL, and the school of Agricultural Sciences at Colorado country collage for his or her help in arranging this collaboration. We additionally desire to show our appreciation for the monetary aid supplied by way of EPA. own thank you are as a result of Dr.
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Extra info for Acid Deposition and the Acidification of Soils and Waters
Numbers in parentheses refer to the net production ( +) or consumption (-) of H+ ions in the soil system starting with soil organic nitrogen. 2 Acid-Base Relationships of Nitrogen Inputs 27 duction remains at + 1. Following our conceptual model of Chap. 3, H+ will react with whatever mineral phase is controlling the solubility of aluminum in the soil to produce an ionic aluminum species that will, except in the most acid soils, replace base cations on the ion-exchange complex. Nitrate salts will be leached and the soil acidified.
A model based on the assumption of a constant lime potential such as that of Reuss (1980) or Christopherson et al. (1982) could easily be modified to accommodate changes in base saturation occurring as a result of cation depletion by adding the relationship shown in Eq. (5-13). The nature of this transition from calcium- to aluminum-dominated solutions has several important implications concerning the effect of acid deposition. In the first place, as shown in the previous paragraph, substantial increases in ionic aluminum species are possible without prior reduction in exchangeable base cations as a result of cation export.
Cation export will have little effect on the calcium-aluminum balance in solution until calcium saturation is reduced to a low level. Further reductions in exchangeable calcium resulting from cation export will then result in a sharp rise in the concentration of ionic aluminum species, particularly AP+ . Again, the actual base saturation at which this transition can be expected to take place depends on the values of KAI and Ks. 8. 1 for 11 soils from Great Britain. Limited model studies using a range of these constants suggest that the base saturation at which aluminum becomes a significant component of the solution could vary from < 1 to 20% or even higher.
Acid Deposition and the Acidification of Soils and Waters by J.O. Reuss, D.W. Johnson