New PDF release: A Comprehensive Laboratory Manual for Environmental Science

By P. R. Sreemahadevan Pillai

ISBN-10: 8122426913

ISBN-13: 9788122426915

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Extra info for A Comprehensive Laboratory Manual for Environmental Science and Engineering

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When the hardness is numerically greater than the sum of the carbonate alkalinity and the bicarbonate alkalinity, the amount of hardness, which is equivalent to the total alkalinity, is called carbonate hardness; the amount of hardness in excess of this is called non-carbonate hardness. When the hardness is numerically equal to or less than the sum of carbonate and bicarbonate alkalinity all of the hardness is carbonate hardness and there is no noncarbonate hardness. The hardness may range from zero to hundreds of milligrams per litre in terms of calcium carbonate, depending on the source and treatment to which the water has been subjected.

22 A Comprehensive Laboratory Manual for Environmental Science and Engineering Procedure 1. 2. 3. 4. Pipette 50 mL of sample into a clean Erlenmeyer flask (V). Add one drop of sodium thiosulphate solution, if residual chlorine is present. 3, colour of solution becomes pink. Titrate against standard sulphuric acid in the burette, till the colour just disappears. Note down the volume (V1). 5. Then add two drops of methyl orange indicator, the colour turns yellow. 6. Again titrate against acid, until the colour turns to orange yellow.

However, if present in significant amounts, other hardness producing metallic ions should be included. When the hardness is numerically greater than the sum of the carbonate alkalinity and the bicarbonate alkalinity, the amount of hardness, which is equivalent to the total alkalinity, is called carbonate hardness; the amount of hardness in excess of this is called non-carbonate hardness. When the hardness is numerically equal to or less than the sum of carbonate and bicarbonate alkalinity all of the hardness is carbonate hardness and there is no noncarbonate hardness.

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A Comprehensive Laboratory Manual for Environmental Science and Engineering by P. R. Sreemahadevan Pillai


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